In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. They contained the original words inspired by God. [29]Einwechter, English Bible Translations: By What Standard? [45] That is, God has not only “immediately inspired” the original writings, but He has also “kept pure in all ages” the apographa so that they “are authentical.”, According to the Word of God, as taught in the Westminster Confession of Faith (14:2), by saving faith “a Christian believes to be true whatsoever is revealed in the Word, for the authority of God Himself speaks therein.” In His Word God tells us that He will providentially preserve His Word unto all generations. You shall be called Cephas"(which is translated, A Stone). By Arthur L. Farstad, et. Contrary to the teachings of Westcott-Hort, wrote Harry Sturz, “distinctively Byzantine readings of every kind have been shown to be early.” They are attested to by early papyri and several of the church fathers. What we have are copies of copies (apographa). I find both versions useful. The Reformers and the later Puritans were very much aware of this discipline. [18]Technically, there is a slight distinction between the Alexandrian Text and the Critical Text, but for the purpose of this article, they are considered to be basically the same. Believing in the principle of sola Scriptura, they were strong advocates of the belief that God has preserved His Word in the majority of manuscripts, which manuscripts were in basic agreement. Greek Text: and pastors in various countries. This volume is an updating of The NKJV Greek-English Interlinear New Testament. The Bible itself affirms the perpetuity of God’s Word. [15]Cited in McDowell, Evidence That Demands a Verdict, 44. First, one text being older than another in no way implies that it is superior. New Testament According to the Majority Text,” as well as from Dr. Wilbur Pickering, ThM. ", Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward Him, and said about him, "Behold, an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile! [41], Therefore, textual criticism over the last century has followed the principles used by Rome (and Enlightenment Rationalism), not those of the Reformers and Puritans. [23] As William Einwechter commented: “Due to this nearly total rejection of the value of the Byzantine [Received] Text as a witness to the original autographs, the scholars have established the MCT [Alexandrian Text] on the basis of only 10-15% of the available manuscripts.”[24], Another group of New Testament scholars argues that the readings of the majority of manuscripts are to be preferred to the readings of the few older manuscripts. (Z.C. But without a site where samples can be seen, little can be said. Majority Text Greek New Testament Interlinear. And they asked him, saying, "Why then do you baptize if you are not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?". [28] In the words of William Einwechter, it is virtually certain that “this text [TR] was in continuous use in the Greek church from at least the 4th century until the time of the Reformation when Erasmus made this text the basis for the first printed edition of the Greek NT.”[29] The fact that we do not possess any early copies of the Byzantine Text is easily explained: 1) the climate in Egypt, where the early Alexandrian Text manuscripts were found, is more arid, thus any text would last longer there; 2) the Egyptian manuscripts were probably not used, due to their corrupt nature, and therefore lasted longer, whereas the majority of manuscripts was frequently used and these manuscripts “wore out.”[30], Second, if numbers of similar manuscripts have a single ancestor, as is alleged to be the case with the Byzantine Text, it does not necessarily mean that the greater number carries little weight. New International Version (NIV) Comments----1 John 4:3, " And every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is not of God: and this is that spirit of antichrist," 1 John 4:3, " but every spirit that does not acknowledge Jesus is not from God.This is the spirit of the antichrist," For many centuries before the Protestant Reformation this Byzantine text was the text of the entire Greek church and for more than three centuries after the Reformation it was the text of the entire Protestant church. This does not mean, as E. F. Hills averred, “the Byzantine Text is an absolutely perfect reproduction of the divinely inspired original text.” Rather: All that is  intended by this expression [that the Byzantine text is to be considered as the Standard text], is that the Byzantine text, found in the vast majority of the Greek New Testament manuscripts, represents the original text very accurately, more accurately than any other text which survives from the manuscript period, and that for this reason it is God’s will that this text be followed almost always in preference to the non-Byzantine texts found in the minority of the New Testament manuscripts and in most of the ancient versions. [39]Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, 122-126. Jesus, for instance, preached from a copy of Isaiah 42 (Matthew 12:18-21) and 61 (Luke 4:16-21), and told others to search the Scriptures (John 5:39). And he led him to Jesus. Consonants without vowels are not words, and God spoke to His people in words. There are also a number of translations of the early church, along with some 2,200 church lectionaries (that is Bible study material or readings for the church’s weekly worship services), which are based on portions of the New Testament. [14]Gordon H. Clark, Colossians (Jefferson, Maryland: The Trinity Foundation, 1989), 131-132. This is one of the great things about having a Bible that is translated from the majority of the The new translations use an incorrect Greek text. He first found his own brother Simon, and said to him, "We have found the Messiah"(which is translated, the Christ). [6]Cited in Wayne Jackson and Bert Thompson, "Questions and Answers," Reason and Revelation (Apologetics Press, September 1989), 33. "And he answered, "No. But, as we will see, this should not be. I consider the New King James Version much easier to read, and it is my recommendation for most people. ", And Nathanael said to him, "Can anything good come out of Nazareth? The Majority Text Manuscripts which the KJV, NKJV and MKJV all came from are the time-tested, trusted manuscripts that were all this world knew, for some 1500 years; The manuscripts used … If the Scripture is “God-breathed,” it naturally follows that only the original is “God-breathed.” If holy men of God spoke from God as they were borne by the Holy Spirit, then only what they spoke under the Spirit’s bearing is inspired. ". Without an infallible church to tell us what is and what is not the actual Word of God, said Rome, one can never be sure of the true text of Scripture. This is the [One] about whom I said, 'After me comes a Man who ranks before me, because He was before me. readings. It is arrived at by comparing all known manuscripts with one another and deriving from them the readings that are more numerous than any others. [40]For a thorough study of this matter see John W. Burgon, The Last Twelve Verses of the Gospel According to S. Mark (Sovereign Grace Book Club, 1959). After all, it is alleged, all of the Byzantine Text came from one related family. For example in 196… Young, Thy Word is Truth (Eerdmans, 1957), 55-56. Third, the churches used the Byzantine Text for over 100 years prior to the Reformation. The Westcott-Hort theory is not dependable. My favorite interlinear. The older text itself could be errant. He was in the world, and the world came to be through Him, and the world did not know Him. ""Are you the Prophet? [21], The Westcott-Hort theory further maintains that some 85-90 percent of Greek manuscripts represented by the Received Text, which unlike the Alexandrian Text, are in substantial agreement, underwent a radical editing process in the fourth century. Romanism favored a few manuscripts with numerous differences, over the majority of manuscript which were in basic agreement, whereas the Reformers and the Puritans, for the most part, took the opposite stand. The doctrine of divine inspiration of the original writings, demands the doctrine of the divine preservation of Scripture. [7]John Warwick Montgomery, cited in Josh McDowell, Evidence That Demands a Verdict (Here’s Life Publishers, 1972, 1979), 40. "They came and saw where He was staying, and they stayed with Him that day. If men use the utmost care diligently to preserve their words (especially if they are of any importance, as for example a testament or contract) in order that it may not be corrupted, how much more, must we suppose, would God take care of His Word which He intended as a testament and seal of His covenant with us, so that it might not be corrupted; especially when He could easily foresee and prevent such corruptions in order to establish the faith of His church?[16]. [25]The Byzantine Text is so called because the majority of its manuscripts come from eastern Greek speaking church in the Byzantine Empire. King James Version (KJV) The Minority Text. In Jeremiah 36, after wicked king Jehoiakim destroyed the prophet’s original document, Jeremiah was told to make another copy. 30. But, as we will see, although we do not possess the original manuscripts (that is the physical documents), it does not follow that we do not have the original words in the copies. In a… The English Majority Text Version draws from the work of both Dr.’s Hodges and Farstad, and their text, “The Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text,” as well as from Dr. Wilbur Pickering, ThM. As the Greek New Testament was copied hundreds of times over 1500 years, the scribes, as careful as they were, occasionally made … majority! Albeit the men of that day had copies of the law (which is obvious from their carrying out the work required by the law in 2 Chronicles 34:1-13), there were apparently certain teachings which were not found in the copies which were in the originals. [34]Hills, The King James Version Defended! It is only the original authors that were inspired by God to write without error (2 Peter 1:20-21; Exodus 32:15-16; 2 Samuel 23:2; Jeremiah 1:9), and copies are the inspired, infallible, inerrant Word of God only to the degree that they reflect the original words. And in Colossians 4:16, the Apostle Paul tells the members of the church at Colosse that after this letter had been read in their hearing, that they should make copies to send on to other churches. ; because if new (and older) manuscripts continue to be found (which is very possible), then we would have to re-evaluate the New Testament text every time a new manuscript is found. Hebrew Transliteration Via Strong's Tagging via Open Scriptures, David Troidl and Christopher Kimball Morphology in partnership with Helps Bible. The Scriptures of Jesus’ day were surely copies of the original manuscripts. Who could assure me that no error or blemish had crept into fundamental passages? [1]This is the mistake of some of those who hold to the “King James only” view, when they advocate that God inspired the translators of the 1611 King James Version of the Bible. The question is whether it is better for Bible translations to rely on the Textus Receptus, which is supported by the majority of manuscripts, or to favor the scientific text (Nestle-Aland). Philip found Nathanael and said to him, "We have found the [One] about whom Moses wrote in the Law, and the Prophets-Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph. The versions following the Alexandrian Text bracket verses 9-20 as not part of the original, because they are lacking in Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus. Their premise is that the doctrine of the preservation of Scripture requires that the early manuscripts cannot point to the original text better than the later manuscripts can, because these early manuscripts are in the minority.Pickering also seems to embrace such a doctrine. PhD., and the EMTV has incorporated his hard work in the field of producing evidence of just what does constitute a majority reading, and, as a result of his work, and the work of others, John … [39] The advocates of this theory would actually have us believe (although they would not state it this way) that God was either unable or unwilling to prevent the mutilation of the text of Holy Scripture. You can also follow us on: “The Scripture,” He taught, “cannot be broken” (John 10:35). [46]Hills, The King James Version Defended!,133. He is the [One ]who comes after me, who has come to be before me, of whom I am not worthy that I should loose the strap of His sandal.". [43]Hills, The King James Version Defended! ", And they asked him, "What then? Therefore, the appropriate corrections were made. Further, in His earthly ministry, Jesus taught the people in their native tongue (Matthew 5-7). [12]John Calvin, Commentary on Matthew 5:18. I hate LESTer! The idea of "conflating" about twenty English translations, starting with the KJV and including many others, is an interesting concept. Even today it is the text which most Protestants know best, since the King James Version and other early Protestant translations were made from it. Scrivener (representing the readings followed in the King James version). See also John Gill, A Dissertation Concerning the Antiquity of the Hebrew Language, Letters, Vowel-Points and Accents (The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1999), who argues that the Masoretes did not claim to be the originators of the vowel-points, but “considered it as of a divine original” (9). Indeed, there is strong evidence to suggest that the Byzantine Text documents come from numerous parts of Christendom, and are not related genealogically.[32]. There are two published Greek texts which purport to represent the Majority readings -- Hodges & Farstad 1982 and Pierpont & Robinson 1991. In Isaiah 40:8 we read: “The grass withers, the flower fades, but the Word of our God stands forever.” Then too, Jesus Himself claimed that “till Heaven and Earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled” (Matthew 5:18). Yet, all copies are just that: copies. [26]See Zane C. Hodges and Arthur L. Farstad, editors, The Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text (Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1985). The EMTV (English Majority Text Version) New Testament by Paul Esposito Text History Regarding the preservation of the Greek New Testament, there are two main schools of thought: (1) the Critical Texts, and (2) the Majority Texts. [35] This erroneous approach to textual criticism is more rationalistic than Biblical. Other studies, however, have shown that this is simply not the case. Other Greek texts besides the Critical Text used for producing English Bibles are the Majority Text and the Textus Receptus. There are very few Bibles available today that reflect the Majority Text. I do not own this current volume but I own the older version. Jesus claimed that He had given His apostles the same infallible, inerrant words which His Father had given Him, and that “they have received them” (John 17:8). The two disciples heard him speaking, and they followed Jesus. Therefore the foundation of the purity and integrity of the sources is not to be placed in the freedom of fault…of men, but in the providence of God (which (however men employed in transcribing the sacred books might possibly mingle various errors) always diligently took care to correct them, or that they might be corrected easily either from a comparison with Scripture itself or from more approved manuscripts. But as many as received Him, He gave them the authority to become children of God, to those who believe in His name; who were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. But it also applies to the apographa in a derivative sense, because we do have the words of the original manuscripts in the copies. more often than not they do not even agree with each other. [19]Codex Sinaiticus also includes two non-canonical books: the Epistle of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermes. [45]Einwechter, English Bible Translations: By What Standard? The Majority Text Compared to the Received Text. He was not that Light, but [was sent] so that he might testify concerning the Light. It is extremely common for King James Only advocates to conflate the “Majority Text” (M-Text) with the “Textus Receptus” (TR), or the tradition of printed Greek texts behind the King James Version. And the church must be very careful how it handles the text of Holy Scripture. The Holman Christian Standard Bible was translated with the goal of creating an optimal balance between word-for-word translation and thought-for-thought translation. See Frank Carmical (Secretary of the Majority Text Society), “What is the Difference Between the ‘King James Only’ and Majority Text Position?” ( [27]E. F. Hills, The King James Version Defended! (The Christian Research Press, 1956), 121. His apostles and disciples did the same. It is my prayer that this work will bring honor to our Lord The experts in linguistics who have put these readings together, and diligently compared the manuscripts, In 2 Timothy 4:13, Paul asks that the “parchments” (obviously copies) be brought to Him so that he might study the Word of God in his prison cell. Now when Jesus looked at him, He said, "You are Simon the son of Jonah. This view of post-canonical inspiration of translators is not the position espoused by biblical Christianity. This is referred to as the Majority Text or Byzantine Text theory. This doctrine is taught in a number of passages in the Bible: Deuteronomy 31:11-12; Jeremiah 36:6-7; Matthew 28:18-20; John 5:39; Romans 15:14, just to list a few. In writing to Timothy, Paul stated that “if anyone…does not consent to wholesome [that is Scriptural] words, even the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to the doctrine according to godliness, he is proud,  knowing nothing…[he is] destitute of the truth” (1 Timothy 6:3-5). [31] Further, it is not the case that the numerous manuscripts of the Byzantine Text have all come from one common parent. According to the Westminster divines, only the original biblical manuscripts (the autographa) were “immediately inspired by God.” These inspired words were “kept pure in all ages.” The Greek and Hebrew copies which we possess today are to be considered “authentical,” and they are the Word of God. The fact of the matter is, however, that the majority of scholars in this group do share the views of Westcott-Hort that the Received or Byzantine Text is an inferior text. TEXTUS RECEPTUS…THE MAJORITY TEXT. No one has seen God at any time. God never claims to have inspired translators and copyists[1] (albeit He does promise to keep His Word pure throughout the ages; Isaiah 40:8). Because World English Bible uses the Majority Text as the basis for the New Testament, you may notice the following differences in comparing the WEB to other translations: The order of Matthew 23:13 and 14 is reversed in some translations. And John testified, saying, "I have beheld the Spirit coming down from heaven like a dove, and He remained upon Him. This is because Hodges is no longer on the faculty (he taught from 1959 to 1986). This in itself does not indicate that God has “by His singular care and providence kept pure in all ages” the New Testament text. [17] As noted above, the controversy here is not over the Old, but the New Testament, at least as regards the textual issues. Because this text has been handed down and preserved by the church through the centuries, it is also referred to as the Traditional Text or Ecclesiastical Text. They were left unused, so they lasted longer. It is also noteworthy that the frequent usage of the Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament) by the New Testament authors speaks highly, not only of the importance of and general accuracy of the transmission of the text, but also of the need for translations into the “vulgar language of every nation unto which they come, that, the Word of God dwelling plentifully in all, they may worship [God] in an acceptable manner; and through patience and comfort of the Scriptures, may have hope.” As the Confession teaches, all persons are enjoined, “in the fear of God, to read and search” the Scriptures, thus requiring that they be able to read and hear the Bible in their native tongues. 40. We appreciate your response. The \"Majority Text\" is a statistical construct that does not correspond exactly to any known manuscript. "Philip said to him, "Come and see. And Pierpont & Robinson 1991 and some still continue to use it among you you... 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